Santosky v. Kramer
Significance, Further Readings
John and Annie Santosky
Kramer, Commissioner of Dept. Social Services, Ulster County
Fair preponderance of evidence is unconstitutional when used to terminate parental rights.
Chief Lawyer for Petitioners
Chief Lawyer for Respondent
Steven D. Scavuzzo
Justices for the Court
Harry A. Blackmun (writing for the Court), William J. Brennan, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Lewis F. Powell, Jr., John Paul Stevens
Warren E. Burger, Sandra Day O'Connor, William H. Rehnquist, Byron R. White
Date of Decision
24 March 1982
Fair preponderance violates due process guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.
- Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923).
- Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S. 510 (1925).
- In re Winship, 397 U.S. 358 (1970).
- Moore v. East Cleveland, 431 U.S. 494 (1977).
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