Gravel v. United States
Significance, Private Publication Not Protected, Impact
Frank Gravel, U.S. Senator
That a senator's aide shares the protections guaranteeing the senator freedom of speech and debate.
Chief Lawyers for Petitioner
Robert J. Reinstein and Charles L. Fishman
Chief Lawyer for the Respondent
Erwin N. Griswold, U.S. Solicitor General
Justices for the Court
Harry A. Blackmun (announced the opinion), Warren E. Burger, Lewis F. Powell, Jr., William H. Rehnquist, Byron R. White (writing for the Court)
William J. Brennan, Jr., William O. Douglas, Thurgood Marshall, Potter Stewart
Date of Decision
29 June 1972
That the privileges of the Speech or Debate Clause do extend to congressional aides, but not to activity outside the legislative process.
- United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).
- Eastland v. United States Servicemen's Fund, 421 U.S. 491 (1975).
- Nixon v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 731 (1982).
- Clinton v. Jones, 520 U.S. 681 (1997).
- Chandler, Ralph C. The Constitutional Law Dictionary. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, Inc., 1987.
- Ducat, Craig R., and Harold W. Chase. Constitutional Interpretation. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company, 1988.
- Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986.
- Grayned v. City of Rockford - Significance, Who Made The Noise?, Broad Laws And Specific Restrictions, The Lone Dissenter, Related Cases
- Graham v. Richardson - Significance
- Gravel v. United States - Significance
- Gravel v. United States - Private Publication Not Protected
- Gravel v. United States - Impact
- Other Free Encyclopedias