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Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components Of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems In Operation, The Importance Of Viewing Criminal Justice As A System

sentencing police juvenile law

A criminal justice system is a set of legal and social institutions for enforcing the criminal law in accordance with a defined set of procedural rules and limitations. In the United States, there are separate federal, state, and military criminal justice systems, and each state has separate systems for adults and juveniles.

Criminal justice systems include several major subsystems, composed of one or more public institutions and their staffs: police and other law enforcement agencies; trial and appellate courts; prosecution and public defender offices; probation and parole agencies; custodial institutions ( jails, prisons, reformatories, halfway houses, etc.); and departments of corrections (responsible for some or all probation, parole, and custodial functions). Some jurisdictions also have a sentencing guidelines commission. Other important public and private actors in this system include: defendants; private defense attorneys; bail bondsmen; other private agencies providing assistance, supervision, or treatment of offenders; and victims and groups or officials representing or assisting them (e.g., crime victim compensation boards). In addition, there are numerous administrative agencies whose work includes criminal law enforcement (e.g., driver and vehicle licensing bureaus; agencies dealing with natural resources and taxation). Legislators and other elected officials, although generally lacking any direct role in individual cases, have a major impact on the formulation of criminal laws and criminal justice policy. Such policy is also strongly influenced by the news media and by businesses and public-employee labor organizations, which have a major stake in criminal justice issues.

The notion of a "system" suggests something highly rational—carefully planned, coordinated, and regulated. Although a certain amount of rationality does exist, much of the functioning of criminal justice agencies is unplanned, poorly coordinated, and unregulated. No jurisdiction has ever reexamined and reformed all (or even any substantial part) of its system of criminal justice. Existing systems include some components that are very ancient (e.g., jury trials) alongside others that are of quite recent origin (e.g., specialized drug courts). Moreover, each of the institutions and actors listed above has its own set of goals and priorities that sometimes conflict with those of other institutions and actors, or with the supposed goals and priorities of the system as a whole. Furthermore, each of these actors has substantial unregulated discretion in making particular decisions (e.g., the victim's decision to report a crime; police and prosecutorial discretion whether and how to apply the criminal law; judicial discretion in the setting of bail and the imposition of sentence; and correctional discretion as to parole release, parole or probation revocation, prison discipline, etc.).

Nevertheless, all of the institutions and actors in the criminal justice system are highly interdependent. What each one does depends on what the others do, and a reform or other change in one part of the system can have major repercussions on other parts. It is therefore very useful to think about criminal justice as a system, not only to stress the need for more overall planning, coordination, and structured discretion, but also to appreciate the complex ways in which different parts of the system interact with each other.

This entry describes the major components of contemporary American criminal justice systems, presents some of the available data on how these components typically operate in practice, and examines the various uses of the system concept. The entry will focus on aspects of criminal justice involving adult offenders and designed to enforce civilian criminal laws. There is, however, considerable overlap between the adult and juvenile systems. The police spend a substantial proportion of their time on juvenile suspects; serious juvenile offenders may be tried as adults; and juvenile court convictions (adjudications) may be taken into account in the sentencing of young adults.

Readers should also be aware that several legal regimes outside of the adult, juvenile, and military criminal justice systems can be used to impose serious deprivations of liberty and property (usually with far fewer legal safeguards than apply to criminal prosecutions). Of these, three deserve special mention. First, persons can be seized and detained, sometimes for lengthy periods, under the civil and administrative procedures used to enforce immigration laws. Second, state and federal law enforcement authorities often employ civil forfeiture procedures, permitting the confiscation of property alleged to be the fruit of criminal activity (for example, money earned from selling drugs) or to have served as an instrumentality of crime (for example, a car used to carry the drugs). Third, persons found to be mentally ill and dangerous to themselves or others are subject to involuntary civil commitment. Such a commitment can lead to indefinite confinement in a secure mental health facility that, from the inmate's perspective, is not much different than a prison. A number of states have expanded these procedures to make it easier to commit sex offenders who have completed their criminal sentences but who are believed to be too dangerous to release into the community.

RICHARD S. FRASE

ROBERT R. WEIDNER

Criminal Law Reform: Continental Europe - From Enlightenment To The Rehabilitative Ideal: Early Reform Efforts, Criminal Law Reform In Continental Europe [next] [back] Criminal Justice Process - Overview Of The Process, The Investigatory Process, The Adjudicatory Stage, The Criminal Trial, Sentencing

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A criminal justice system is a set of legal and social institutions for enforcing the criminal law in accordance with a defined set of procedural rules and limitations. In the United States, there are separate federal, state, and military criminal justice systems, and each state has separate systems for adults and juveniles.



Criminal justice systems include several major subsystems, composed of one or more public institutions and their staffs: police and other law enforcement agencies; trial and appellate courts; prosecution and public defender offices; probation and parole agencies; custodial institutions ( jails, prisons, reformatories, halfway houses, etc.); and departments of corrections (responsible for some or all probation, parole, and custodial functions). Some jurisdictions also have a sentencing guidelines commission. Other important public and private actors in this system include: defendants; private defense attorneys; bail bondsmen; other private agencies providing assistance, supervision, or treatment of offenders; and victims and groups or officials representing or assisting them (e.g., crime victim compensation boards). In addition, there are numerous administrative agencies whose work includes criminal law enforcement (e.g., driver and vehicle licensing bureaus; agencies dealing with natural resources and taxation). Legislators and other elected officials, although generally lacking any direct role in individual cases, have a major impact on the formulation of criminal laws and criminal justice policy. Such policy is also strongly influenced by the news media and by businesses and public-employee labor organizations, which have a major stake in criminal justice issues.



The notion of a "system" suggests something highly rational—carefully planned, coordinated, and regulated. Although a certain amount of rationality does exist, much of the functioning of criminal justice agencies is unplanned, poorly coordinated, and unregulated. No jurisdiction has ever reexamined and reformed all (or even any substantial part) of its system of criminal justice. Existing systems include some components that are very ancient (e.g., jury trials) alongside others that are of quite recent origin (e.g., specialized drug courts). Moreover, each of the institutions and actors listed above has its own set of goals and priorities that sometimes conflict with those of other institutions and actors, or with the supposed goals and priorities of the system as a whole. Furthermore, each of these actors has substantial unregulated discretion in making particular decisions (e.g., the victim's decision to report a crime; police and prosecutorial discretion whether and how to apply the criminal law; judicial discretion in the setting of bail and the imposition of sentence; and correctional discretion as to parole release, parole or probation revocation, prison discipline, etc.).



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Nevertheless, all of the institutions and actors in the criminal justice system are highly interdependent. What each one does depends on what the others do, and a reform or other change in one part of the system can have major repercussions on other parts. It is therefore very useful to think about criminal justice as a system, not only to stress the need for more overall planning, coordination, and structured discretion, but also to appreciate the complex ways in which different parts of the system interact with each other.



This entry describes the major components of contemporary American criminal justice systems, presents some of the available data on how these components typically operate in practice, and examines the various uses of the system concept. The entry will focus on aspects of criminal justice involving adult offenders and designed to enforce civilian criminal laws. There is, however, considerable overlap between the adult and juvenile systems. The police spend a substantial proportion of their time on juvenile suspects; serious juvenile offenders may be tried as adults; and juvenile court convictions (adjudications) may be taken into account in the sentencing of young adults.



Readers should also be aware that several legal regimes outside of the adult, juvenile, and military criminal justice systems can be used to impose serious deprivations of liberty and property (usually with far fewer legal safeguards than apply to criminal prosecutions). Of these, three deserve special mention. First, persons can be seized and detained, sometimes for lengthy periods, under the civil and administrative procedures used to enforce immigration laws. Second, state and federal law enforcement authorities often employ civil forfeiture procedures, permitting the confiscation of property alleged to be the fruit of criminal activity (for example, money earned from selling drugs) or to have served as an instrumentality of crime (for example, a car used to carry the drugs). Third, persons found to be mentally ill and dangerous to themselves or others are subject to involuntary civil commitment. Such a commitment can lead to indefinite confinement in a secure mental health facility that, from the inmate's perspective, is not much different than a prison. A number of states have expanded these procedures to make it easier to commit sex offenders who have completed their criminal sentences but who are believed to be too dangerous to release into the community.



RICHARD S. FRASE



ROBERT R. WEIDNER



See also BAIL; CAREERS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE: CORRECTIONS; CAREERS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE: LAW; CAREERS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE: POLICE; COMPARATIVE CRIMINAL LAW AND ENFORCEMENT: ENGLAND AND WALES; COUNSEL: RIGHT TO COUNSEL; COUNSEL: ROLE OF COUNSEL; CRIME COMMISSIONS; CRIMINALIZATION AND DECRIMINALIZATION; CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS; CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS; CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS; FEDERAL CRIMINAL LAW ENFORCEMENT; GUILTY PLEA: ACCEPTING THE PLEA; GUILTY PLEA: PLEA BARGAINING; INFORMAL DISPOSITION; INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE STANDARDS; JAILS; JUVENILE JUSTICE: HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY; JUVENILE JUSTICE: INSTITUTIONS; JUVENILE JUSTICE: JUVENILE COURT; JUVENILES IN THE ADULT SYSTEM; POLICE: HISTORY; POLICE: COMMUNITY POLICING; POLICE: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS; POLICE: HANDLING OF JUVENILES; POLICE: ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT; PRETRIAL DIVERSION; PROBATION AND PAROLE: PROCEDURAL PROTECTION; PROBATION AND PAROLE: SUPERVISION; PROSECUTION: HISTORY OF THE PUBLIC PROSECUTOR; PROSECUTION: PROSECUTORIAL DISCRETION; PROSECUTION: UNITED STATES ATTORNEY; PROBATION AND PAROLE: HISTORY, GOALS AND, DECISION-MAKING; PUNISHMENT; SENTENCING: ALLOCATION OF AUTHORITY; SENTENCING: ALTERNATIVES; SENTENCING: DISPARITY; SENTENCING: GUIDELINES; SENTENCING: MANDATORY AND MANDATORY MINIMUM SENTENCES; SENTENCING: PRESENTENCE REPORT; SENTENCING: PROCEDURAL PROTECTION; STATISTICS: REPORTING SYSTEMS AND METHODS; VICTIMLESS CRIME; VICTIMS' RIGHTS.



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Additional Topics

Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components Of Criminal Justice Systems

The principal components of American criminal justice systems are jurisdictional (resulting in separate federal and state systems), normative (the goals, values, and limitations provided by criminal and procedural laws), functional (the activities that typically occur at different stages of the process), and institutional (the officials, agencies, and other actors that handle these various stages)…



Criminal Justice System - The Systems In Operation

Previous sections of this entry have described the structure and purposes of criminal justice systems, but it is equally important to examine how systems function in practice?which may be quite different from how they are commonly assumed to function. Perhaps the most striking finding derived from the available data on system operations is the very substantial case attrition between the start of t…



Criminal Justice System - The Importance Of Viewing Criminal Justice As A System

Although criminal justice, in practice, is often highly un-"systematic," it is still very useful to take a system-wide approach when seeking to better understand and more effectively respond to problems of modern criminal justice. Understanding criminal justice practices. A systemwide approach facilitates better understanding of the many ways in which decisions at earlier and later stages of the p…



Criminal Justice System - Bibliography

American Bar Association, Section of Criminal Justice. The State of Criminal Justice. Chicago: American Bar Association, 1998. ??. Prisoners in 1999. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. Cited as Beck 2000b in this entry. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Correctional Populations in the United States, 1995. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997. ??. Compendium of Federa…



Criminal Justice System - Internet Resources

Criminal Law Reform: Continental Europe - From Enlightenment To The Rehabilitative Ideal: Early Reform Efforts, Criminal Law Reform In Continental Europe [next] [back] Criminal Justice Process - Overview Of The Process, The Investigatory Process, The Adjudicatory Stage, The Criminal Trial, Sentencing



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Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components Of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems In Operation, The Importance Of Viewing Criminal Justice As A System



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over 3 years ago

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how to locate the police office who did the arrest in n.y.c. police officer is not the arresting officer and the dept has change, lied about the arresting officers.

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about 3 years ago

critically discuss the components of criminal justice system

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What are your thoughts on the privatizing prisons and should we work more toward rehabilitation since longer sentences have not reduced the prison population?

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6 days ago

The information that you provided is very helpful, but I would like information on this question if you can provide one.
How do you think each component impacts the criminal justice system?
This question I am having problems in finding an answer for and I need info on it for my class in criminal justice. I would appreciate it.
Thank you

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Research of world peace,unity,disaster,safety,
health and wealth solutions.

DEAR FRIENDS,
PEACE BE ON ALL OF US.

The following message is in accordance with under ARTICLES 16 to 19 of INTERNATIONAL
COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS ,1966 and the same may be
considered by the Attorney General.USA. A report may be sent to USA. Government
to send the same to the UN Human rights commission.

It is pertinent to note that there are no world peace and climate
changes. It is not known how the noble prize award has been awarded
by the Noble Prize Foundation? US governments have spending billions
of dollars to other countries towards peace, but no result.

For the purpose of peace, unity, climate changes, disasters,
health, wealth, interfaith and also faith in the world. I have sent
the following message to the White House, National Board of National
Science Foundation, World Churches Council, National Churches Council
USA, Jewish Federation, Vatican, American Research Association,
National Council of US and Arab Relation, American Muslims
Federations, and also Islamic Supreme Council USA requesting to
research the following message and take decisions in this regard.

It is not known why the White House and others are not taking
immediate steps on the message? And the same will result to destroy
population in accordance with the Holy Quranic verses 17:16 and 28:59.
The USA govt and its researchers are having good facilities to
research any matters immediately. Non cooperation to research the
following message will also result of acts of God. The USA govt, the
leaders of all the communities and also researches are requested to
research and discuss the following message in the interest of peace
etc in the world.

Now 400 millions research papers are available for peace
solutions, but there is no result for it, unless the messages
posted in the website http://www.goldenduas.com are researched by
researchers all over the world. Otherwise the world cannot have peace and
Unity for some reasons or the other.

Thank you very much for joining me in the interest of public safety
and peace. Most of the followers are researchers
and good educated persons involving peace,unity and safety amongst all
communities in the world and accordingly we sought support from all of
you to study and analyze the God's messages posted in the website
www.goldenduas.com and it may be advertised all over the world on
the reason that every person is suffering due to all kind of
natural calamaties in the world. God's messages posted in the
Website www.goldenduas.com are to be followed, otherwise no government and
scientist can safeguard life and liberty of the public of all
communities in the world according to Quranic verses 17:16 and
28:59.Internet services in the world are requested to support us to
spread our website messages to each and every corner of the world so
thot it can be
known and discussed by all the internet communities in the world.

Holy Bible says:
1."Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye
There fore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves".
- Matthew 10:16.
2."Be strong, do not fear; your God will come, he will come with vengeance;
with divine retribution he will come to save you". - Isaiah 35:4

Holy Quran says:
28:59. Nor was thy Lord the one
To destroy a population until
He had sent to its Centre
An apostle, rehearsing to them
Our Signs; nor are We
Going to destroy a population
Except when its members
Practice iniquity.

Our website http://www.goldenduas.com contains more information not only
to avoid all kinds of natural calamities in the world but also by
quranic verse 12:15
to improve growths in economy,business,education,employment,jobs,
health, wealth, security, faith and to be protected from climate
changes (heavy snow, rain, heat etc),and to cause unity and peace all
over the world. Our service all
over the world is a non-profitable service to all mankind and animals.


Please check our homepage of the website http://www.goldenduas.com to
know our services.
Otherwise, the public of the world will suffer due to all kind of
natural calamities till the day of resurrection and also they will
fail to improve in economy,businesses, unity, peace, education,
health, wealth, security, faith and also
Climate changes.

I am a messenger of God in accordance with the holy Quranic
verse 28:59. It is my bounden duty to protect all the communities in
the world. Now¸a film under the name and style, 'Innocence of
Muslims'has been published by Google and Youtube against Prophet
Mohamed and Muslims which is creating trouble between Muslim and
Christian brotherhoods in the world,which is against the holy Quranic
verses 5:82¸20:129 and 130 and as such no Muslim can harm Christians.

The Christians and Jews can go through the Quranic verse 7:157 on the
basis of holy Torah and Bible wherein Prophet Mohamed has been
mentioned as prophet,after Jesus¸ but the same fact was not followed
by the two communities of Jews and Christians in the world. And
accordingly Jews and Christians are divided into various group till
the Day of Resurrection according to the Quranic verses 5:13 and 14.
God has also created Palestine to create trouble to Jews till the Day
of resurrection in accordance with Quranic verses 7:163 and 167.

We conducted a survey and research that why Christians and Muslims
are not cooperating with each other in the world? We found the
following answers.

1. Christians are well educated and research scholars to research each
and every issue brought to them, but unfortunately Satan occupying not
to apply their mind to analyse that how Jesus was killed and crucified
when God has given him five favours and one out of it is he brought
forth the dead.
2. Jews are not accepting our Prophet Jesus that they tried to kill
Jesus, but Christians are following Jews and depending upon their
advice.
3. Christians fail to realise Matthew 14:23 and Quranic verse 5:14 and
9:31 that and when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a
mountain apart to pray. If Jesus is God or a part of God then why did
he pray?
4. Christians are not interpreting Matthew 27:11-14 to mean that Jesus
wanted to die on the cross for the redemption of mankind and for the
forgiveness of their sins. If so, then why did he ask to turn away
that cup from him? Why did he cry out while on the cross?
5. Muslims are accepting Jesus as prophet and his mother Mary, but
Jews disbelieve and utter against Mary, a grave false charge (that she
had committed illegal sexual intercourse).
6. Muslims believe that Jesus was not killed and crucified by the Jews
as revealed in the holy Quran verse 4:157 and 158.
7. Most of Muslims in the world are not educated and innocent. Some
leaders and organisations are misleading young Muslims to fight with
other communities as Jihad which is not recognised in the Quranic
verses 5:32, 22:40, 45:14 and they are termed as perverts in
accordance with Quranic verse 2:99.
8. Christians failed to interpret Quranic verse 4:157 and
158,5:14,5:82,7:158, 57:27 and 28 and 61:6 read with John
14:15-16,15:26-27,16:5-8,read with Matthew 10:16.

I am a follower of Christianity and Islam according to Quranic verse
57:28.God Almighty invites all my Christian brotherhood in the world
to follow Christianity and Islam.Kindly read Quranic verse 57:27and 28
which are available in Quranic English Translation websites.

ISLAM HAS THE SECOND LARGEST POPULATION IN THE WORLD.IF PROPHET
MUHAMMAD[PEACE BE UPON HIM]
CAN INFLUENCE SUCH A LARGE POPULATION FOR OVER 1500 YEARS,HOW COULD HE
DO IT WITHOUT GOD'S
GRACE AND HOW COULD HE BE A FALSE PROPHET?CHRISTIANS' PROCLAMATION OF
CALLING PROPHET MUHAMMAD[PEACE BE UPON HIM] AS A FALSE PROPHET IS THE
MAIN REASON OF VENGEANCE AND HATRED BETWEEN CHRISTIAN AND MUSLIM
BROTHERHOOD.YOU CAN FIND HIS TRUE SELF IF YOU READ HIS BIOGRAPHIES
WRITTEN BY GREAT CHRISTIAN SCHOLARS.THE MOST RECCOMENDED ARE:

1.Muhammad, his life based on the earliest sources by Martin Lings.
2.Muhammad by Karen Armstrong.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
5:18.(Both) the Jews and the Christians
Say: "We are sons
Of God, and His beloved."
Say: "Why then doth He
Punish you for your sins?
Nay, ye are but men,
Of the men He hath created:
He forgiveth whom He pleaseth,
And He punisheth whom He pleaseth:
And to God belongeth
The dominion of the heavens
And the earth, and all
That is between:
And unto Him
Is the final goal (of all)"
40:83. For when their apostles
Came to them
With Clear Signs, they exulted
In such knowledge (and skill)
As they had; but
That very (Wrath) at which
They were wont to scoff
Hemmed them in.
84. But when they saw
Our Punishment, they said:
"We believe in God,—
The One God—and we
Reject the partners we used
To join with Him."
85. But their professing the Faith
When they (actually) saw
Our Punishment was not going
To profit them.
(Such has been) God's way
Of dealing with His servants
(From the most ancient times).
And even thus did
The rejecters of God
Perish (utterly)!

SO,BEING BORN A JEW,CHRISTIAN OR MUSLIM DOES NOT GUARANTEE
SALVATION.BELIEVING THE ONE TRUE
GOD AND ACCEPTING HIS APOSTLES WHEN THEY COME TO US WITH GOD'S CLEAR
SIGNS ARE THE WAYS TO
ATTAIN SALVATION.SO,RESEARCH WHAT IS SAID IN OUR MESSAGES AND ACCEPT
AND BELIEVE THE ONE
TRUE GOD AND THE TRUE APOSTLES OF GOD.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
5:19.O People of the Book!
Now hath come unto you,
Making (things) clear unto you,
Our Apostle, after the break
In (the series of) our apostles,
Lest ye should say:
"There came unto us
No bringer of glad tidings
And no warner (from evil)":
But now hath come
Unto you a bringer
Of glad tidings
And a warner (from evil).
And God hath power
Over all things.

5:82.Strongest among men in enmity
To the Believers wilt thou
Find the Jews and Pagans;
And nearest among them in love
To the Believers wilt thou
Find those who say,
"We are Christians":
Because amongst these are
Men devoted to learning
And men who have renounced
The world, and they
Are not arrogant.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
3:55. Behold! God said:
"O Jesus! I will take thee
And raise thee to Myself
And clear thee (of the falsehoods)
Of those who blaspheme;
I will make those
Who follow thee superior
To those who reject faith,
To the Day of Resurrection:
Then shall ye all
Return unto me,
And I will judge
Between you of the matters
Wherein ye dispute.


THESE ARE TRUE WORDS OF HOLY QURAN REVEALED THROUGH PROPHET
MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WHICH GIVE GLAD TIDINGS TO CHRISTIANS AND
REVEALS THAT HE WAS THE "TRUE COMFORTER" FORETOLD AND PROMISED TO THE
CHRISTIANS BY JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
19:27. At length she brought
The (babe) to her people,
Carrying him (in her arms).
They said: "O Mary!
Truly an amazing thing
Hast thou brought!

28. "O sister of Aaron!
Thy father was not
A man of evil, nor thy
Mother a woman unchaste!"

29. But she pointed to the babe.
They said: "How can we
Talk to one who is
A child in the cradle?"

30. He said: "I am indeed
A servant of God:
He hath given me
Revelation and made me
A prophet;

31. "And He hath made me
Blessed wheresoever I be,
And hath enjoined on me
Prayer and Charity as long
As I live;

32. "(He) hath made me kind
To my mother, and not
Overbearing or miserable;

33. "So Peace is on me
The day I was born,
The day that I die,
And the day that I
Shall be raised up
To life (again)"

34. Such (was) Jesus the son
Of Mary: (it is) a statement
Of truth, about which
They (vainly) dispute.

35. It is not befitting
To (the majesty of) God
That He should beget
A son. Glory be to Him!
When He determines
A matter, He only says
To it, "Be", and it is.

36. Verily God is my Lord
And your Lord: Him
Therefore serve ye: this is
A Way that is straight.

37. But the sects differ
Among themselves: and woe
To the Unbelievers because
Of the (coming) Judgment
Of a momentous Day!

PROPHET MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WAS NOT THERE WHEN MARY[PEACE BE
UPON HER] BROUGHT JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] TO HER PEOPLE AND MOREOVER
HE WAS AN UNLETERRED PROPHET AND THERE WAS NO CHANCE OF HIM READING
THE OLD SCRIPTURES.THIS DETAILED DESCRIPTION ON MARY AND JESUS[PEACE
BE UPON THEM] REVEALS THAT THOSE WERE NOT HIS WORDS BUT WERE THE WORDS
OF GOD REVEALED THROUGH HIM.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
4:156. That they rejected Faith;
That they uttered against Mary
A grave false charge;

4:157. That they said (in boast),
"We killed Christ Jesus
The son of Mary,
The Apostle of God";—
But they killed him not,
Nor crucified him,
But so it was made
To appear to them,
And those who differ
Therein are full of doubts,
With no (certain) knowledge,
But only conjecture to follow,
For of a surety
They killed him not:—

4:158. Nay, God raised him up
Unto Himself; and God
Is Exalted in Power, Wise;—

HERE GOD ALMIGHTY STATES CLEARLY THAT HE RAISED JESUS[PEACE BE UPON
HIM] UNTO HIMSELF AND CRUCIFIXION WAS NOTHING BUT A CONJECTURE PLAYED
BY GOD TO FOOL THE JEWS WHO TRIED TO KILL JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].THE
PERSON WHO THEY REALLY CRUCIFIED WAS NONE OTHER THAN JUDAS,THE TRAITOR
OF JESUS,WHOSE FACE GOD CHANGED TO RESEMBLE JESUS.BUT PEOPLE WRONGLY
BELIEVED THAT HE MUST HAVE KILLED HIMSELF BECAUSE HE WAS MISSING SINCE
HE WAS CRUCIFIED AND BURIED.WHILE ALMIGHTY GOD HID JESUS[PEACE BE UPON
HIM] FROM PEOPLE AND BROUGHT HIM BACK AFTER 3 DAYS AND THEN RAISED HIM
TO HEAVEN WITH BODY AND SOUL UNTO HIMSELF.AND THIS MADE PEOPLE BELIEVE
THAT JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WAS CRUCIFIED,RESURRECTED AND RAISED TO
HEAVEN.HOW WOULD ALMIGHTY GOD ALLOW HIS BELOVED PROPHET JESUS[PEACE BE
UPON HIM] TO BE CRUCIFIED BY HIS ENEMIES WHEN HE HAS GIVEN HIMSELF
THE POWER TO BRING BACK THE DEAD?HOW JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] COULD
HAVE BEEN RESURRCTED WHEN HE WAS NOT CRUCIFIED AT ALL?OUR CHRISTIAN
BROTHERS AND SISTERS ARE WORSHIPPING JUDAS[JESUS' TRAITOR] WRONGLY
BELIEVING HIM TO BE JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].THIS MISBELIEF AND FALSE
CLAIM OF CHRISTIANS ON JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WHO IS ONE OF THE
GREATEST PROPHETS OF GOD HAS RESULTED IN MISUNDERSTANDING AND
VENGEANCE BETWEEN THE CHRISTIAN AND MUSLIM BROTHERHOODS.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
22:40. (They are) those who have
Been expelled from their homes
In defiance of right,
(For no cause) except
That they say," Lord
Is God". Did not God
Check one set of people
By means of another,
There would surely have been
Pulled down monasteries, churches,
Synagogues, and mosques, in which
The name of God is commemorated
In abundant measure. God will
Certainly aid those who
Aid His (cause);—for verily
God is Full of Strength,
Exalted in Might,
(Able to enforce His Will).

BY GOD'S GRACE,WE ARE ONE AMONG THEM AND WE ARE SENDING MESSAGES TO
ALL MISGUIDED ORGANISATIONS TO BRING PEACE AMONGST US.


HOLY QURAN SAYS:
45:14. Tell those who believe,
To forgive those who
Do not look forward
To the Days of God:
It is for Him to recompense
(For good or ill) each People
According to what
They have earned.

THIS ONE VERSE IS ENOUGH OF A PROOF TO MAKE CLEAR THAT ISLAM IS
CLOSELY RELATED TO REASON AND PEACE AND FAR OFF FROM VIOLENCE.IT IS
THE MISGUIDANCE OF SOME IRRESPONSIBLE LEADERS AND ORGANISATIONS WHICH
HAS MISLED SOME INNOCENT MUSLIMS WHO ARE NOT MUCH EDUCATED.ISLAM,HOLY
QURAN AND PROPHET MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM] ARE IN NO WAY RESPONSIBLE
FOR IT.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
7:157. "Those who follow the Apostle,
The unlettered Prophet,
Whom they find mentioned
In their own (Scriptures),—
In the Law and the Gospel;—
For he commands them
What is just and forbids them
What is evil; he allows
Them as lawful what is good
(And pure) and prohibits them
From what is bad (and impure);
He releases them
From their heavy burdens
And from the yokes
That are upon them.
So it is those who believe
In him, honour him,
Help him, and follow the Light
Which is sent down with him,—
It is they who will prosper."

5:33.The punishment of those
Who wage war against God
And His Apostle, and strive
With might and main
For mischief through the land
Is: execution, or crucifixion,
Or the cutting off of hands
And feet from opposite sides,
Or exile from the land:
That is their disgrace
In this world, and
A heavy punishment is theirs
In the Hereafter;

17:33. Nor take life—which God
Has made sacred—except
For just cause. And if
Anyone is slain wrongfully,
We have given his heir
Authority (to demand Qi?a?
Or to forgive): but let him
Not exceed bounds in the matter
Of taking life; for he
Is helped (by the Law).

17:107. Say: "Whether ye believe
In it or not, it is true
That those who were given
Knowledge beforehand, when
It it recited to them,
Fall down on their faces
In humble prostration,

2:99. We have sent down to thee
Manifest Signs (ayat);
And none reject them
But those who are perverse.

SO,IT IS HIGH TIME FOR THE CHRISTIANS TO READ THE HOLY QURAN IN THE
TRUE LIGHT OF GOD AND BELIEVE IN ISLAM,HOLY QURAN AND PROPHET
MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM]WHO IS THE "TRUE COMFORTER"FORETOLD AND
PROMISED TO THE CHRISTIANS BY JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].

All are requested to follow me in the interest of world peace
solutions and unity in the world among all of you, as I am a messenger
of God according to Quranic verse 28:59. I am a messenger of God,who
has the duty to make notice the above said facts to United States of
America and others in the world in accordance with the Quranic verse
4:83,as I fear that world is not peaceful in these hard days. In the
circumstances stated above, I pray for peace and unity in the world
and request the United States of America to ask all the researchers in
the world to research the Biblical verses and Quranic verses stated
above in the light of the messages posted in the website
http://www.goldenduas.com in the interest of public peace and unity
among all communities in the world. I request early solutions,as early
as possible.

GOD BLESS.PRAISE THE LORD.SUBHANALLAH.

Your Success,
U.Ibrahim Ali

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almost 2 years ago

nice article. I would like to know if the application of complexity theory would make sense in solving the problems faced by most african countries in their criminal justice system.

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almost 2 years ago

I appreciate all this information. It was very informative. I am studying Criminal Justice and concentrating on Human Services at Colorado Technical University. Thank you
Markesha

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about 2 years ago

I am doing research for collage.The question that I need to answered is. What drugs laws have most significantly impacted the corrections system

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over 2 years ago

would you to help me in knowing the AGENCE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM...

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about 3 years ago

Please i will like to start receiving your mails concerning issues regarding criminal justice system.
Thanks.

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about 3 years ago

criminal justice is the answer to open the key to life

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about 3 years ago

You are all infinitely stupid.

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about 3 years ago

This document is surely comprehensive, which I will find very usefull in my law studies which I am pursuing now under a government scholarship program. Thank you sincerely for this page. I will continue to refer to it everytime I do my research work. Best wishes and Regards,

Mackenzie

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over 3 years ago



Although criminal justice, in practice, is often highly un-"systematic," it is still very useful to take a system-wide approach when seeking to better understand and more effectively respond to problems of modern criminal justice. Understanding criminal justice practices. A systemwide approach facilitates better understanding of the many ways in which decisions at earlier and later stages of the p…



Read more: Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components Of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems In Operation, The Importance Of Viewing Criminal Justice As A System http://law.jrank.org/pages/858/Criminal-Justice-System.html#ixzz1McIs99nk