Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court
Origins, Expansion, Retrenchment, Structure, Personnel, Process, Caseload, Juvenile Rights, Continuing Controversies
Juvenile courts in the United States are legally responsible for young people who are arrested by the police or otherwise accused of breaking the criminal laws of their community. Some areas of the country do not have courts actually called juvenile courts. Law violations by young people may be handled by probate courts, juvenile divisions of a circuit court, or even comprehensive family courts. In every community, however, some form of court is charged with responding to cases in which a person under the age of adulthood (a juvenile) is suspected of breaking the law. Since these courts have jurisdiction over juveniles and they follow the same general principles of juvenile law, it is conventional to refer to them simply as juvenile courts.
Many juvenile courts handle other types of cases. They often handle dependency cases (or matters involving abused and neglected children) and youth charged with noncriminal acts (or status offenses) such as curfew violations, running away from home, and truancy. Other juvenile courts (especially those known as family courts) may handle domestic violence and child custody matters. Typically, however, a juvenile court's caseload is made up of law violations, status offenders, and dependency cases. Law violations usually account for about half of this workload.
JEFFREY A. BUTTS
See also JUVENILE AND YOUTH GANGS; JUVENILE JUSTICE: HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY; JUVENILE JUSTICE: COMMUNITY TREATMENT; JUVENILE JUSTICE: INSTITUTIONS; JUVENILES IN THE ADULT SYSTEM; JUVENILE STATUS OFFENDERS; JUVENILE VIOLENT OFFENDERS; POLICE: HANDLING OF JUVENILES; PREVENTION: JUVENILES AS POTENTIAL OFFENDERS; SCHOOLS AND CRIME.
- Juvenile Status Offenders - Historical Antecedents, The Breadth Of Proscribed Behaviors, Separation Of Noncriminal Conduct From Delinquent Conduct, Constraints On Judicial Powers
- Juvenile Justice: Institutions - Current Developments And Problems, Effect Of Crowding On Conditions Of Confinement, Performance-based Standards
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Origins
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Expansion
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Retrenchment
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Structure
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Personnel
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Process
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Caseload
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Juvenile Rights
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Continuing Controversies
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - New Policy Directions
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - A Remade Juvenile Court
- Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court - Bibliography
- Other Free Encyclopedias