Graham v. Richardson
Carmen Richardson, et al.
John O. Graham, Commissioner, Department of Public Welfare, State of Arizona
Arizona's alien residency requirements violated the Equal Protection Clause and the constitutional right to travel; they conflicted with the Social Security Act, as the Supremacy Clause took precedence; Congress had regulatory powers over aliens, not individual states.
Chief Lawyer for Appellant
Anthony B. Ching
Chief Lawyer for Appellee
Michael S. Flam
Justices for the Court
Hugo Lafayette Black, Harry A. Blackmun (writing for the Court), William J. Brennan, Jr., Warren E. Burger, William O. Douglas, John Marshall Harlan II, Thurgood Marshall, Potter Stewart, Byron R. White
Date of Decision
14 June 1971
Provisions of state welfare laws that placed conditions on welfare benefits due to citizenship and imposed durational residency requirements on aliens violated the U.S. Constitution's Equal Protection Clause.
- Shapiro v. Thompson, 394 U.S. 618 (1969).
- Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982).
- Martinez v. Bynum, 461 U.S. 321 (1983).
- Dorsen, N., O. K., and T. Viles Fraenkel. Civil Liberties in the United States, Vol. 6, P.F. Collier, 1996.
- Hull, Elisabeth. "Resident Aliens and the Equal Protection Clause: The Burger Court's Retreat from Graham v. Richardson." Brooklyn Law Review, Vol. 47, no. 1, p. 1.
- McWhirter, Darien A. "Urban Residence and Poverty." Exploring the Constitution, Vol. 1. The Oryx Press, 1995.
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