Inc. v. Pena Adarand Constructors
Significance, Affirmative Action Standards Clarified, Further Readings
Adarand Constructors, Inc.
Federico Pena, Secretary of Transportation
That race-based presumptions in federal subcontractor programs violate equal protection under the law.
Chief Lawyer for Petitioner
William Perry Pendley
Chief Lawyer for Respondent
Drew S. Days III, Solicitor General
Justices for the Court
Anthony M. Kennedy, Sandra Day O'Connor (writing for the Court), William H. Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas
Stephen Breyer, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David H. Souter, John Paul Stevens
Date of Decision
12 June 1995
Declared that classifications based explicitly on race must be narrowly tailored.The Court furthered compelling government interests by overturning the lower court's ruling against Adarand by a vote of 5-4.
- Fullilove v. Klutznick, 448 U.S. 448 (1980).
- Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989).
- Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission, 497 U.S. 547 (1990).
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