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Criminal Law Reform: Historical Development in the United States


American Law Institute. Model Penal Code: Proposed Official Draft. Philadelphia: ALI, 1962.

BARNES, HARRY ELMER. The Evolution of Penology in Pennsylvania: A Study in American Social History (1927). Reprint. Montclair, N.J.: Patterson Smith, 1968.

BECCARIA, CESARE. On Crimes and Punishments (1764). Translated with an introduction by Henry Paolucci. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963.

BOYD, JULIAN P., ed. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 2. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1950.

"Colony of New Plymouth: Laws of 1636." The Compact with the Charter and Laws of the Colony of New Plymouth. Edited by William Brigham. Boston: Dutton & Wentworth, 1836, pp. 35–57.

"Constitution of Pennsylvania, 1790." The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America, vol. 5. Edited by Francis Newton Thorpe. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909, pp. 3092–3103.

DAVIS, DAVID BRION. "The Movement to Abolish Capital Punishment in America, 1798–1861." American Historical Review 63 (1957): 23–46.

DRESSLER, DAVID. Practice and Theory of Probation and Parole. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

FRIEDMAN, LAWRENCE M. Crime and Punishment in American History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

GOEBEL, JULIUS, JR., and NAUGHTON, T. RAYMOND. Law Enforcement in Colonial New York: A Study in Criminal Procedure (1664–1776) (1944). Reprint. Montclair, N.J.: Patterson Smith, 1970.

GREEN, THOMAS A. "Freedom and Criminal Responsibility in the Age of Pound: An Essay on Criminal Justice." Michigan Law Review 93 (1995): 1915–2053.

HALL, JEROME. "Edward Livingston and His Louisiana Penal Code." American Bar Association Journal 22 (1936): 191–196.

HALL, LIVINGSTON. "The Substantive Law of Crimes: 1887–1936." Harvard Law Review 50 (1937): 616–653.

HARNO, ALBERT J. "Some Significant Developments in Criminal Law and Procedure in the Last Century." Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 42 (1951): 427–467.

HIRSCH, ADAM J. The Rise of the Penitentiary: Prisons and Punishments in Early America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

KADISH, SANFORD H. "Codifiers of the Criminal Law: Wechsler's Predecessors." Columbia Law Review 78 (1978): 1098–1144.

KEEDY, EDWIN R. "History of the Pennsylvania Statute Creating Degrees of Murder." University of Pennsylvania Law Review 97 (1949): 759–777.

The Laws and Liberties of Massachusetts. Reprinted from the copy of the 1648 edition in the Henry B. Huntington Library. Introduction by Max Farrand. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1929.

LIVINGSTON, EDWARD. The Complete Works of Edward Livingston on Criminal Jurisprudence. Consisting of Systems of Penal Law for the State of Louisiana and for the United States of America (1873). 2 vols. Introduction by Salmon P. Chase. Reprint. Montclair, N.J.: Patterson Smith, 1968.

NELSON, WILLIAM E. The Americanization of the Common Law:The Impact of Legal Change on Massachusetts Society, 1760–1830. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.

New York State Commissioners of the Code. Draft of a Penal Code for the State of New York. Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1864.

POUND, ROSCOE. Criminal Justice in America (1930). Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1972.

——, and FRANKFURTER, FELIX, eds. Criminal Justice in Cleveland: Reports of the Cleveland Foundation Survey of the Administration of Criminal Justice in Cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland Foundation, 1922.

ROTHMAN, DAVID J. Conscience and Convenience: The Asylum and Its Alternatives in Progressive America. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

——. The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic. Boston: Little, Brown, rev. ed. 1990.

SAYRE, FRANCIS. "Public Welfare Offenses." Columbia Law Review 33 (1933): 55–88.

U.S. Congress. "Title LXX." Revised Statutes of the United States. 2d ed. 43d Cong., 2d sess., 1873–1874. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1878, pp. 1035–1075.

WALKER, SAMUEL E. Popular Justice: A History of American Criminal Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

WARNER, SAM B., and CABOT, HENRY B. "Changes in the Administration of Criminal Justice during the Past Fifty Years." Harvard Law Review 50 (1937): 583–615.

WECHSLER, HERBERT. "American Law Institute: II. A Thoughtful Code of Substantive Law." Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 45 (1955): 524–530.

——. "The Model Penal Code and the Codification of American Criminal Law." Crime, Criminology, and Public Policy: Essays in Honor of Sir Leon Radzinowicz. Edited by Roger G. Hood. New York: Free Press, 1974, pp.419–468.

——, and MICHAEL, JEROME. "A Rationale of the Law of Homicide." Columbia Law Review 37 (1937): 701–761, 1261–1325.

Additional topics

Law Library - American Law and Legal InformationCrime and Criminal LawCriminal Law Reform: Historical Development in the United States - Introduction, The Colonial Period, The Revolution And Its Aftermath, The Antebellum Period, The Postbellum Period