The degree awarded to an individual upon the successful completion of law school.
Juris doctor, or doctor of JURISPRUDENCE, commonly abbreviated J.D., is the degree commonly conferred by law schools. It is required in all states except California (which includes an option called law office study) to gain ADMISSION TO THE BAR. Gaining admission to the bar means obtaining a license to practice law in a particular state or in federal court.
Until the 1930s and 1940s, many states did not require a person to have a law school degree in order to obtain a license to practice law. Most lawyers qualified for a license by working as an apprentice for an established attorney for a specified period. By the 1950s most states required a law school degree. State legislatures established this requirement to raise the standards of practicing attorneys and to restrict the number of attorneys. The degree offered by most COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES was called a master of laws (L.L.M.) degree. In the 1960s, as colleges and universities increased the requirements for a law degree, the J.D. replaced the L.L.M. as the primary degree awarded by law schools.
The specific requirements for a J.D. vary from school to school. Generally, the requirements include completing a minimum number of class hours each academic period, and taking certain mandatory courses such as contracts, TORTS, CIVIL PROCEDURE, and CRIMINAL LAW in the first year of law school. All states require that students pass a course on PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY before receiving a J.D. degree.
Morgan, Thomas D., and Ronald D. Rotunda. 1993. Professional Responsibility: Problems and Materials. 5th ed. Westbury, N.Y.: Foundation Press.
Tuttle, Cliff. 1995. "Juris Doctor: The Versatile Degree." Pennsylvania Law Weekly 18 (December 11).