Bush v. Vera
Significance, Three Districts Challenged, A Difficult Decision, Impact, Further Readings
George W. Bush, Governor of Texas, et al.
Al Vera, et al.
The Texas state legislature created three new congressional districts with African American and Hispanic majorities to better reflect 1990 census demographics. Appellants claimed that these districts were narrowly tailored to satisfy the strict scrutiny requirement in the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Chief Lawyers for Appellants
Javier Aguilar (lawyer for state appellants), Paul Bender (lawyer for federal appellant), and Penda D. Hair (lawyer for private appellants)
Chief Lawyers for Appellees
Daniel E. Troy
Justices for the Court
Anthony M. Kennedy, Sandra Day O'Connor (writing for the Court), William H. Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas
Stephen Breyer, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David H. Souter, John Paul Stevens
Date of Decision
13 June 1996
Although three congressional districts were not sufficiently tailored to protect minority rights, they were, nonetheless unconstitutionally created because racial factors predominated in their creation.
- Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339 (1960).
- Davis v. Bandemer, 478 U.S. 109 (1986).
- Shaw v. Reno, 509 U.S. 630 (1993).
- Miller v. Johnson, 515 U.S. 900 (1995).
- Shaw v. Hunt, 517 U.S. 899 (1996).
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