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Immanuel Kant - Further Readings

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Immanuel Kant shook the foundations of Western philosophy in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This author and professor did his most important writing between 1781 and 1790 while working at the University of Königsberg, where he spent most of his life. Kant's philosophical model not only swept aside the ideas of the so-called empiricists and rationalists who came before him, it also had a lasting effect outside of philosophy, especially in the areas of ethics and the law. Today, legal scholars still debate his ideas—and their sometimes startling implications—in relation to contemporary issues.

Kant was born into a lower-middle-class family in East Prussia in 1724. A gifted student, he studied in a Latin school from age eight until age sixteen, when he entered the University of Königsberg to take up theology, natural science, and philosophy. The death of his father forced

Immanuel Kant.
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him to abandon his studies in order to work as a private tutor, and he had to wait several years before returning to complete his education. By that time he was already writing serious books. From what is called Kant's precritical period, these early works are primarily scientific. In recognition of his talents, the university made him a lecturer and eventually a professor. He taught logic and metaphysics.

Twenty years later Kant attacked the reigning schools of thought. In this so-called critical period, he wrote his most famous book, The Critique of Pure Reason (1781). Kant's work examined the relation of experience and perception: he was concerned with how people know what they know, and just as important, the proper uses of the powers of reasoning. He argued that reality can be perceived only to the extent that it complies with the aptitude of the mind that is doing the perceiving. This places one kind of

limitation on what can be known. Kant saw another limitation, too: only phenomena—things that can be experienced—are capable of being understood; everything else is unknown. The human senses, therefore, take supreme precedence in determining what is real.

These theories have implications for conventional morality. Kant viewed God, freedom, and immortality as incomprehensible: they can only be contemplated; their existence can never be proved. Nonetheless, he argued, all three of them are important as the basis for morality. Kant believed that reason is insufficient to justify moral behavior. The justification for behaving morally has to come from people's sense of duty, which he called the categorical imperative.

Kant continued to develop his philosophy in subsequent books including Critique of Judgment (1790) and Religion within the Limits of Reasons Alone (1793). The latter enraged the government, resulting in its CENSORSHIP and an official order to Kant to write no more books about religion.

"THE GREATEST PROBLEM FOR THE HUMAN SPECIES, THE SOLUTION OF WHICH NATURE COMPELS HIM TO SEEK, IS THAT OF ATTAINING A CIVIL SOCIETY WHICH CAN ADMINISTER JUSTICE UNIVERSALLY."
—IMMANUEL KANT

Philosophers have studied Kant's work for over two centuries, but legal thinkers outside of Europe have only widely treated it in recent years. In the late twentieth century, when many U.S. scholars of law turned to interdisciplinary studies that involved the fields of economics and textual analysis, Kant provided another model for argument. Kant's ideas cover the foundation of law while specifically addressing property, contracts, and criminal punishment. Kant proposed that punishment should be meted out strictly without exception—because of society's duty to seek retribution. "[I]f justice goes," Kant wrote in 1797, "there is no longer any value in men's living on the earth."

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over 6 years ago



Honorable Sir/Madam



With profound regards we humbly request you that We are a voluntary organization which sets up work in Indus Valley Sindh, the southern part of Pakistan our project is to help and facilitate a libraries program in Sindh, with the name of “Mother of Civilization Library” We therefore anxious in collecting resource materials including any books of Immanuel Kant a great German philosopher.



Here is a large part of College and University aged population in Sindh towns and countryside, who love to read and know more about his extraordinary personality his famous work about "Critique of Pure Reason", philosophy and metaphysics specifically his prominently known transcendental idealist philosophy and many topics for which he has been praised for its realism in the history of western literature and world, but our people are underprivileged from the fundamental facilities of libraries, and became very much in troubled after big catastrophe of supper flood which hit the large part of population of this province in which all educational institutions and libraries infrastructure has been destroyed.



Your donations of books scan do much to stimulate and encourage the growth of learning, especially among the young generation of Sindh about it. Therefore we appeal your great institution to make a little contribution of above books on compassionate and humanitarian ground; the result would be the placement of new or used books (or equivalent educational materials) into the library for needy and destitute pupils who have thirst of knowledge.



Hope you will consider our humble supplication with the glance of appreciation and make small numbers of books donation for this libraries program. You will truly make a difference in the lives of the Indus Valley people who will receive your gift of books In case, you wish to know more about our libraries program and various facets associated with it. Please free to contact our office on all the days.





Thanking you



Yours Sincerely

Rashid Anees

Project Manager







Postal Address

Mother of Civilization Library

P.O. Sobho khan Magsi

Via: Radhan Station

Postal Code 76310

District Dadu Sindh

Pakistan

Phone 00923003609982