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Federal Courts - Legislative And Constitutional Courts, Structure, Geographic Organization, Jurisdiction, Bankruptcy Courts, Court Of Federal Claims - Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

created controversies congress supreme

The U.S. judicial tribunals created by Article III of the Constitution, or by Congress, to hear and determine JUSTICIABLE controversies.

The Constitution created the Supreme Court and empowered Congress, in Article I, Section 8, to establish inferior federal courts. The authority of federal courts is limited to that given to them by the federal statutes that created them. Federal courts exist independently of the system of courts in each state that adjudicate controversies that arise pursuant to the laws of that state.

Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces is the final appellate tribunal that reviews COURT-MARTIAL proceedings of the armed services. Established in 1950 (10 U.S.C.A. § 867), it is presided over by five civilian judges who are appointed for 15-year terms by the president. Rulings of the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces are subject only to certiorari review by the Supreme Court.

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