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John Thomas Scopes Trial: 1925 (The "Monkey Trial") - The Circus Comes To Dayton, Evolution On Trial, Darrow Deflates Bryan, Suggestions For Further Reading

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Name of Defendant: John Thomas Scopes
Crime Charged: Teaching evolution
Chief Defense Lawyers: Clarence Darrow, Arthur Garfield Hays, and Dudley Field Malone.
Chief Prosecutors: William Jennings Bryan and A.T. Stewart

Judge: John T. Raulston
Place: Dayton, Tennessee
Dates of Trial: July 10-21, 1925
Verdict: Guilty; however, neither side won the case because the decision was reversed on a technicality involving the judge's error in imposing a fine that legally could only be set by the jury
Sentence: $100 fine

SIGNIFICANCE: The John Thomas Scopes trial checked the influence of Fundamentalism in public education and stripped William Jennings Bryan of his dignity as a key figure in American political history. It also marked the displacement of religious faith and rural values by scientific skepticism and cosmopolitanism as the dominant strains in American thought.

Rarely has the American psyche been so at odds with itself as in the early 1920s. In the cities, Americans were dancing to the opening bars of the Jazz Age, debating Sigmund Freud's theories and swigging bootleg liquor in defiance of Prohibition. In the rural heartland, particularly in the South, believers in oldfashioned values were caught up in a wave of religious revivalism. Preachers damned modern scientific rationalism in all its guises and upheld a strict and literal interpretation of the Bible as the only source of truth. A showdown between modernists and traditionalists to decide which would dominate American culture seemed inevitable. Both sides itched for a decisive battle.

Fundamentalists were particularly galled by the gains modernism had made in public schools, where the teaching of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection had supplanted the Biblical story of creation. To them, it seemed their tax dollars were being spent to turn their own children against—even to scoff at—the religion of their parents. Led by William Jennings Bryan, the thricedefeated presidential candidate of populism, the Fundamentalists tried to drive the Darwinian "heresy" out of the schools by legislative fiat.

In Tennessee a bill sponsored by John Washington Butler was enacted in February 1925, declaring it unlawful for a teacher in any school supported by state funds "to teach any theory that denies the story of the divine creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals." Fearful that if the Tennessee law went unchallenged other states would soon pass similar bills, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) immediately announced it would defend any teacher charged with violating the Butler Act.

A few weeks later, in the little town of Dayton, a transplanted New Yorker with Darwinian views got into a debate at the local drugstore soda fountain with two Fundamentalist lawyers. However much they fought over evolution and whether mankind and monkeys were close relatives, they quickly agreed that a trial to test the law would do wonders for Dayton's commerce. The 24-year-old science teacher of the local high school, John Thomas Scopes, was recruited that very afternoon to be the legal guinea pig. Just as quickly, the ACLU confirmed it was prepared to defend Scopes.

Using a state-approved textbook, Scopes taught a lesson on evolutionary theory on April 24 to his Rhea County High School science class. Arrested on May 7, Scopes was quickly indicted by the grand jury, setting the stage for what newspaper headline writers were already calling the "Monkey Trial."

Johnson v. Zerbst - Significance, Supreme Court Requires That Counsel Be Appointed, Federal Court Of Appeals [next] [back] John S. Williams and Clyde Manning Trials: 1921 - Peonage Outlawed, But Flourishes For 50 Years, Murdering The "evidence" Of Peonage, Southern Peonage Draws National Attention

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over 9 years ago

This article is primarily based on misinformation.

1. Far from crushing opposition to the teaching of evolution in schools, more political activity occurred AFTER the Scopes Trial than before.

2. Regardless of media opinion, the ant-evolutionist crusade won hands down after the Scopes Trial with the subject of evolution almost disappearing from textbooks until the 1950s. And even when the subject was mentioned it was usually referred to as "development", or some similat euphemism, rather than "evolution".

3. The action in Dayton was based on the so-called 'Drug Store Conspiracy' to attract publicity - there was NO dispute over evolution and/or Darwin.

4. Scopes was NOT "a science teacher" - he was primarily on a one year contract as a sports coach with occasional teaching duties as required. He was actually standing in for the regular biology teacher when he ALLEGEDLY taught evolution.

5. Far from teaching evolution on April 24th (as stated in the indictment) on subsequent occasions (both immediately after the trial and in his biography) Scopes claimed he couldn't remember ever having taught any of the students about evolution.

6. The term "Monkey Trial" was most likely coined by the newspaper columnist H.L. Mencken, and it is unlikely that he used the term until shortly before Darrow abnnounced that he would be taking part in the proceedings, which in turn came after Bryan announced he was volunteering his services to the prosecution. Which certainly came AFTER the grand jury indictment.

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about 10 years ago

Oh, if only a law was passed like that today... too many people ban Christianity from schools, which DOES go against freedom of religion. Instead, they allow Islamic teachings, evolution, anything but Christianity. And why is this? Because of spiritual warfare trying to bring down those who believe in Christ Jesus. We water down the Truth so we don't offend anyone's beliefs. God's word is sufficient for all our needs.