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International Criminal Justice Standards - International Criminal Court

tribunal icc statute established

Based upon the precedents of the Nuremberg Tribunal established by the London Agreement of 1945, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Tokyo Tribunal) established in 1946, trials in Germany under Control Council Law No. 10 (1946), the Yugoslav Tribunal established in 1993, and the Rwanda Tribunal of 1994, a diplomatic conference in Rome adopted a statute of 17 July 1998 for a permanent International Criminal Court (ICC). When the statute has been ratified by at least sixty states, the ICC will begin to bring to justice persons who have been accused of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. On an ad hoc basis, the ICC may also be authorized by the Security Council to handle any situations similar to the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. As of 15 December 1999, there are ninety-one states that have signed and five that have ratified the ICC Statute.

Many of the international criminal justice standards in the ICC Statute were derived from the Civil and Political Covenant and the rules of the Yugoslav Tribunal. The ICC Statute establishes a structure and rules of procedure for the court and protects the rights of suspects, defendants, victims, and witnesses. Further procedural protections will be developed in coming years.

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