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International Criminal Justice Standards - Universal Declaration Of Human Rights

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In 1948 the U.N. General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Universal Declaration), which provides a worldwide definition of the human rights obligations undertaken by all U.N. member states pursuant to Articles 55 and 56 of the U.N. Charter, including several provisions relating to the administration of justice. For example, Article 10 of the Universal Declaration states, "Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him." Article 11 provides for the presumption of innocence, public trial, "all guarantees necessary for [one's] defence," and the right to be free from retroactive punishment or penalties. Other provisions of the Universal Declaration—for example, as to arbitrary arrest, the right to an effective remedy, the right to be free from torture, the right to security of person, and privacy—are relevant to the criminal justice system and the fairness of the trial process.

International Criminal Justice Standards - International Covenant On Civil And Political Rights [next]

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