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Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls - Significance, Women And Children First, Defining "business Necessity", "outright And Explicit" Discrimination

petitioners decision act paul


International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, UAW, et al.


Johnson Controls, Inc.

Petitioners' Claim

That Johnson Controls' "fetal protection policy" is sex discrimination prohibited by the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA).

Chief Lawyer for Petitioners

Marsha S. Berzon

Chief Lawyer for Respondent

Stanley S. Jaspan

Justices for the Court

Harry A. Blackmun (writing for the Court), Anthony M. Kennedy, Thurgood Marshall, Sandra Day O'Connor, William H. Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, David H. Souter, John Paul Stevens, Byron R. White

Justices Dissenting



Washington, D.C.

Date of Decision

20 March 1991


Johnson Controls' fetal protection policy was in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended by the PDA.

Related Cases

  • Ward's Cove Packing v. Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989).
  • Radovanic v. Centex Real Estate Corporation, 767 F.Supp. 1322 (W.D.N.C. 1991).
  • Krauel v. Iowa Methodist Medical Center, 95 F.3d 674 (1996).


West's Encyclopedia of American Law. St. Paul, MN: West Group, 1998.

Baby Jessica Case: 1993 - Biological Mother Regrets Adoption, The Battle Over Jessica Continues [next] [back] Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce - Case Background, Dissenting Opinions

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