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Virginia and Kentucky Resolves

federal acts constitution government

Resolutions passed by the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures in 1798 and 1799 protesting the federal ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS of 1798.

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolves were expressions of opposition by the Jeffersonian Republicans against the Federalist-sponsored Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. Besides opposing these particular measures, the legislative resolutions proposed a "compact" theory of the U.S. Constitution that contended that state legislatures possessed all powers not specifically granted to the federal government and gave the states the right to rule upon the constitutionality of federal legislation. The resolutions became the basis for nineteenth-century STATES' RIGHTS doctrines, which were employed by Southern states to defend the institution of SLAVERY.

The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed as internal security laws, restricting ALIENS and limiting FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, based on the assumption in 1798 that the United States might soon be at war with France. Though the acts were widely popular, THOMAS JEFFERSON (then vice president in the administration of JOHN ADAMS) and JAMES MADISON (one of the primary architects of the U.S. Constitution) opposed the measures. They expressed their opposition through the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves. Madison drafted the Virginia Resolves (December 21, 1798), and Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolves (November 10, 1798, and November 14, 1799), though their roles were not disclosed to the public for twenty-five years.

The resolves expressed the Republicans' theory of the limited nature of the grant of power to the federal government under the U.S. Constitution. This theory was buttressed by the TENTH AMENDMENT, which stipulates that "powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." Because the Constitution did not give Congress the express power to provide for the expulsion of aliens who had committed no crimes and whose countries were not at war with the United States, the Republicans reasoned that the provisions of the Alien and Sedition Acts that provided for such deportation proceedings were unconstitutional. Likewise, Congress had not been given the express power to impose punishments for seditious libel, leading Republicans to conclude that these provisions were unconstitutional.

Jefferson and Madison asserted in the resolves that state legislatures had the right to determine whether the federal government was complying with the mandate of the Constitution. Under their compact theory of the Constitution, they argued that the grant of power to the federal government was in the nature of an authorization to act as an agent for the individual state legislatures. The resolves maintained that the individual state legislatures retained the ultimate sovereignty of the people. Therefore, state legislatures, as equal parties to the Constitution, had the right to determine whether the federal government was complying with the original agency directives, and they had the right to declare noncompliance. Jefferson and Madison also argued that the states had the right to be released from the compact (the Constitution) if compliance was not forthcoming, thereby suggesting that secession from the Union was legitimate.

Jefferson, in the second of the Kentucky Resolves, contended that the "sovereign and independent states" had the right to "interpose" themselves between their citizens and improper national legislative actions and to "nullify" acts of Congress they deemed unconstitutional. The Federalists strenuously objected to this theory, fearing that the federal government would be seriously weakened. The Federalists argued that only the federal courts could rule on the constitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which they said represented valid exercises of implied powers in time of national crisis. The acts, they argued, were authorized by Article I, Section 8, Clause 18, of the Constitution, which directs Congress "to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution" the powers vested by the Constitution in the government of the United States. Because the federal government was vested with the power of conducting the national defense, the Federalists asserted, exercises of reasonable security measures, such as the Alien and Sedition Acts, were permissible.

No other state legislatures passed resolves in support of those of Virginia and Kentucky, including the legislatures of Republican-controlled states, in large part because of opposition to France, based on the XYZ AFFAIR, in which the French refused to recognize U.S. diplomats and demanded bribes before any such recognition would be forthcoming. In this political climate, state legislatures supported the Alien and Sedition Acts.

The acts expired or were repealed between 1800 and 1802, after Jefferson became president. Nevertheless, the theories of limited federal government and nullification remained popular during the early nineteenth century. New England states asserted nullification during the WAR OF 1812, and South Carolina asserted it in opposition to federal tariff legislation in 1832. South Carolina statesman and political theorist JOHN C. CALHOUN further developed Jefferson's theory, giving the states the right to dissolve their contractual relationship with the federal government rather than submit to policies they saw as destructive to their local self-interests. These ideas ultimately became the legal justification for the secession of Southern states from the Union in 1861.

FURTHER READINGS

Costa, Greg. 1999. "John Marshall, the Sedition Act, and Free Speech in the Early Republic." Texas Law Review 77 (March).

Watkins, William J., Jr. 1999. "The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: Guideposts of Limited Government." Independent Review 3 (winter).

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We need more space monkies danget!!!!

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almost 3 years ago

We need more monkies for space travel Im gonna get my O-line and turn you ninnies into real men.

Breeeenddddoooonnnnnn

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almost 3 years ago

We need more funding for NASA, The space program has been going downhill and NASA needs fun to help support those space monkies in outer space without the funding they won't make it back or it'll end up like the movie planet of the apes.

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Origins

Loch NessThe term "monster" was reportedly applied for the first time to the creature on 2 May 1933 by Alex Campbell, the water bailiff for Loch Ness and a part-time journalist, in a report in the Inverness Courier.[6][7][8] On 4 August 1933, the Courier published as a full news item the claim of a London man, George Spicer, that a few weeks earlier while motoring around the Loch, he and his wife had seen "the nearest approach to a dragon or pre-historic animal that I have ever seen in my life", trundling across the road toward the Loch carrying "an animal" in its mouth.[9] Other letters began appearing in the Courier, often anonymously, with claims of land or water sightings, either on the writer's part or on the parts of family, acquaintances or stories they remembered being told.[10] These stories soon reached the national (and later the international) press, which described a "monster fish", "sea serpent", or "dragon",[11] eventually settling on "Loch Ness Monster".[12] On 6 December 1933 the first purported photograph of the monster, taken by Hugh Gray, was published in The Daily Express,[13] and shortly after the creature received official notice when the Secretary of State for Scotland ordered the police to prevent any attacks on it.[14] In 1934, interest was further sparked by what is known as The Surgeon's Photograph. In the same year R. T. Gould published a book,[15] the first of many that describe the author's personal investigation and collected record of additional reports pre-dating the summer of 1933. Other authors have claimed that sightings of the monster go as far back as the 6th century (seen below).



HistorySaint Columba (6th century)The earliest report of a monster associated with the vicinity of Loch Ness appears in the Life of St. Columba by Adomnán, written in the 7th century.[16] According to Adomnán, writing about a century after the events he described, the Irish monk Saint Columba was staying in the land of the Picts with his companions when he came across the locals burying a man by the River Ness. They explained that the man had been swimming the river when he was attacked by a "water beast" that had mauled him and dragged him under. They tried to rescue him in a boat, but were able only to drag up his corpse. Hearing this, Columba stunned the Picts by sending his follower Luigne moccu Min to swim across the river. The beast came after him, but Columba made the sign of the cross and commanded: "Go no further. Do not touch the man. Go back at once."[17] The beast immediately halted as if it had been "pulled back with ropes" and fled in terror, and both Columba's men and the pagan Picts praised God for the miracle.[17]



Believers in the Loch Ness Monster often point to this story, which notably takes place on the River Ness rather than the loch itself, as evidence for the creature's existence as early as the 6th century.[18] However, sceptics question the narrative's reliability, noting that water-beast stories were extremely common in medieval saints' Lives; as such, Adomnán's tale is likely a recycling of a common motif attached to a local landmark.[19] According to the sceptics, Adomnán's story may be independent of the modern Loch Ness Monster legend entirely, only becoming attached to it in retrospect by believers seeking to bolster their claims.[18] Additionally, in an article for Cryptozoology, A. C. Thomas notes that even if there were some truth to the story, it could be explained rationally as an encounter with a walrus or similar creature that had swum up the river.[18] R. Binns acknowledges that this account is the most serious of various alleged early sighting of the monster, but argues that all other claims of monster sightings prior to 1933 are highly dubious and do not prove that there was a tradition of the monster before this date.[7]



Spicers (1933)Modern interest in the monster was sparked by the 22 July 1933 sighting, when George Spicer and his wife saw 'a most extraordinary form of animal' cross the road in front of their car.[9] They described the creature as having a large body (about 4 feet (1.2 m) high and 25 feet (7.6 m) long), and long, narrow neck, slightly thicker than an elephant's trunk and as long as the 10–12-foot (3–4 m) width of the road; the neck had a number of undulations in it. They saw no limbs, possibly because of a dip in the road obscuring the animal's lower portion.[20] It lurched across the road towards the loch 20 yards (20 m) away, leaving only a trail of broken undergrowth in its wake.[20]



In August 1933 a motorcyclist named Arthur Grant claimed to have nearly hit the creature while approaching Abriachan on the north-eastern shore, at about 1 am on a moonlit night. Grant claimed that he saw a small head attached to a long neck, and that the creature saw him and crossed the road back into the loch. A veterinary student, he described it as a hybrid between a seal and a plesiosaur. Grant said he dismounted and followed it to the loch, but only saw ripples.[15][21] However some believe this story was intended as a humorous explanation of a motorcycle accident.[22]



Sporadic land sightings continued until 1963, when film of the creature was shot in the loch from a distance of 4 Kilometers. Because of the distance it was shot at it has been described as poor quality.[23]



Chief Constable William Fraser (1938)In 1938, Inverness Shire Chief Constable William Fraser penned a letter stating that it was beyond doubt the monster existed. His letter expressed concern regarding a hunting party that had arrived armed with a specially-made harpoon gun and were determined to catch the monster "dead or alive". He believed his power to protect the monster from the hunters was "very doubtful". The letter was released by the National Archives of Scotland on 27 April 2010.[24][25]



C. B. Farrel (1943)In May 1943, C. B. Farrel of the Royal Observer Corps was supposedly distracted from his duties by a Nessie sighting. He claimed to have been about 250 yards (230 m) away from a large-eyed, 'finned' creature, which had a 20-to-30-foot (6 to 9 m) long body, and a neck that protruded about 4–5 feet (1.2–1.5 m) out of the water.[26]



Sonar contact (1954)In December 1954 a strange sonar contact was made by the fishing boat Rival III. The vessel's crew observed sonar readings of a large object keeping pace with the boat at a depth of 480 feet (146 m). It was detected travelling for half a mile (800 m) in this manner, before contact was lost, but then found again later.[26] Many sonar attempts had been made previously, but most were either inconclusive or negative.



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The Virginia and Kentucky Resolves were expressions of opposition by the Jeffersonian Republicans against the Federalist-sponsored Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. Besides opposing these particular measures, the legislative resolutions proposed a "compact" theory of the U.S. Constitution that contended that state legislatures possessed all powers not specifically granted to the federal government and gave the states the right to rule upon the constitutionality of federal legislation. The resolutions became the basis for nineteenth-century STATES' RIGHTS doctrines, which were employed by Southern states to defend the institution of SLAVERY.



The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed as internal security laws, restricting ALIENS and limiting FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, based on the assumption in 1798 that the United States might soon be at war with France. Though the acts were widely popular, THOMAS JEFFERSON (then vice president in the administration of JOHN ADAMS) and JAMES MADISON (one of the primary architects of the U.S. Constitution) opposed the measures. They expressed their opposition through the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves. Madison drafted the Virginia Resolves (December 21, 1798), and Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolves (November 10, 1798, and November 14, 1799), though their roles were not disclosed to the public for twenty-five years.



The resolves expressed the Republicans' theory of the limited nature of the grant of power to the federal government under the U.S. Constitution. This theory was buttressed by the TENTH AMENDMENT, which stipulates that "powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." Because the Constitution did not give Congress the express power to provide for the expulsion of aliens who had committed no crimes and whose countries were not at war with the United States, the Republicans reasoned that the provisions of the Alien and Sedition Acts that provided for such deportation proceedings were unconstitutional. Likewise, Congress had not been given the express power to impose punishments for seditious libel, leading Republicans to conclude that these provisions were unconstitutional.



Jefferson and Madison asserted in the resolves that state legislatures had the right to determine whether the federal government was complying with the mandate of the Constitution. Under their compact theory of the Constitution, they argued that the grant of power to the federal government was in the nature of an authorization to act as an agent for the individual state legislatures. The resolves maintained that the individual state legislatures retained the ultimate sovereignty of the people. Therefore, state legislatures, as equal parties to the Constitution, had the right to determine whether the federal government was complying with the original agency directives, and they had the right to declare noncompliance. Jefferson and Madison also argued that the states had the right to be released from the compact (the Constitution) if compliance was not forthcoming, thereby suggesting that secession from the Union was legitimate.



Jefferson, in the second of the Kentucky Resolves, contended that the "sovereign and independent states" had the right to "interpose" themselves between their citizens and improper national legislative actions and to "nullify" acts of Congress they deemed unconstitutional. The Federalists strenuously objected to this theory, fearing that the federal government would be seriously weakened. The Federalists argued that only the federal courts could rule on the constitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which they said represented valid exercises of implied powers in time of national crisis. The acts, they argued, were authorized by Article I, Section 8, Clause 18, of the Constitution, which directs Congress "to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution" the powers vested by the Constitution in the government of the United States. Because the federal government was vested with the power of conducting the national defense, the Federalists asserted, exercises of reasonable security measures, such as the Alien and Sedition Acts, were permissible.



No other state legislatures passed resolves in support of those of Virginia and Kentucky, including the legislatures of Republican-controlled states, in large part because of opposition to France, based on the XYZ AFFAIR, in which the French refused to recognize U.S. diplomats and demanded bribes before any such recognition would be forthcoming. In this political climate, state legislatures supported the Alien and Sedition Acts.



The acts expired or were repealed between 1800 and 1802, after Jefferson became president. Nevertheless, the theories of limited federal government and nullification remained popular during the early nineteenth century. New England states asserted nullification during the WAR OF 1812, and South Carolina asserted it in opposition to federal tariff legislation in 1832. South Carolina statesman and political theorist JOHN C. CALHOUN further developed Jefferson's theory, giving the states the right to dissolve their contractual relationship with the federal government rather than submit to policies they saw as destructive to their local self-interests. These ideas ultimately became the legal justification for the secession of Southern states from the Union in 1861.



FURTHER READINGS

Costa, Greg. 1999. "John Marshall, the Sedition Act, and Free Speech in the Early Republic." Texas Law Review 77 (March).



Watkins, William J., Jr. 1999. "The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: Guideposts of Limited Government." Independent Review 3 (winter).



CROSS-REFERENCES

Kentucky Resolutions; "Virginia and Kentucky Resolves" (Appendix, Primary Document); XYZ Affair.







Read more: Virginia and Kentucky Resolves - Federal, Acts, Government, and Constitution - JRank Articles http://law.jrank.org/pages/11138/Virginia-Kentucky-Resolves.html#ixzz1dhH5T3hy

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about 2 years ago

This Richard ninny needs to get a life. This site is making me nauseous, because they do not fund my space monkey program. This is where we will launch monkies that have had speacailty training to attack the space martians


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over 2 years ago

1932). Financier and former Reichsbank president Hjalmar Schacht, 56, has persuaded President Hindenburg to give Hitler the position that he sought last Ballet: Les Presages (Destiny) 4/13 at Monte to finance acquisitions that include a small Boston residential hotel called the Sheraton despite its Hepplewhite decor, and used the name Sheraton to identify all their properties.



Architect Adolf Loos dies at Kalksburg outside Vienna August 23 at age 62; Addison Mizner has died of heart disease at Palm Beach February 5 at age 60, having created $50 million worth of flamboyant structures for jaded millionaires.



environment



The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) created by Congress March 31 under the Unemployment Relief Act (Reforestation) will enlist more than 3 million young men in the next 8 years. The CCC will plant more than 2 billion trees, build small dams, aid in wildlife restoration, and tackle erosion problems not only in the continental United States but also in Puerto Rico and other U.S. possessions (see 1935).



Drought continues on the southern plains, and dust storms increase in number and intensity (see 1932). Strong winds blow away topsoil and drive sand into houses, obliging desperate families in rural areas to hang wet sheets over windows and make other efforts to keep out the dirt, which still gets into food and lungs (see agriculture [dust storms], 1934).



A Soil Erosion Service started by the U.S. Department of Agriculture helps farmers learn tilling methods that will minimize erosion. The seriousness of the problem gains recognition when a great dust storm November 11 to 13 sweeps South Dakota topsoil as far east as Albany, N.Y. (see 1909; 1935).



The new Tennessee Valley Authority will erect dams to control floods in the Tennessee Valley region, and the federal government will build 24 new dams and cuts on the upper Mississippi River between Minnesota and Cairo, Ill., to reduce flooding (see Flood Control Act, 1928; but see also1993).



An earthquake in Japan's Sanriku prefecture March 2 leaves 2,990 dead; a quake in China August 25 kills an estimated 10,000.



China's Huanghe (Yellow River) floods its banks, as it does most years, but this time it creates such devastation that 18,300 are killed (see 1957).



Oregon's Tillamook Burn in August wipes out 12 billion board feet of virgin timber. Friction from a falling tree has touched off the fire that advances along an 18-mile front, littering beaches for 30 miles with charred fragments and raining still smoldering debris on ships 100 miles at sea.



agriculture



U.S. farm prices drop 63 percent below 1929 levels as compared with 15 percent for industrial prices since industrialists can control production more effectively than can farmers (see 1932). Cotton sells in February at 5.5¢/lb., down from a 1909-1914 average of 12.5¢, and wheat sells for 32.3¢/bushel, down from an average of 88.4¢.



The Tennessee Valley Authority will improve agriculture in the Tennessee Valley region, making Alabama's backwoods Sands Mountain region the nation's most profitable small-farming area, with the emphasis on raising corn and feeding it to chickens for production of poultry and eggs.



The Jones-Costigan Act (Sugar Act of 1934) signed into law by President Roosevelt May 9 protects beet growers without raising tariffs by requiring that at least half of all U.S. sugar needs be supplied by domestic producers and grants subsidies to those producers. The Sugar Act allows prices far above world levels to help friendly nations that sell to the United States. Quotas are assigned to offshore producers, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, and the Department of State will use those quotas over the years to reward or punish foreign nations depending on how cooperative they are to U.S. interests (see Cuba, 1960).



An Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) voted by Congress May 12 authorizes establishment of an Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) within the Department of Agriculture (see 1938).



A Farm Credit Act passed by Congress June 16 consolidates rural credit agencies under a Farm Credit Administration.



An Emergency Farm Bill becomes law in June, and the AAA sets out to restore farm income by reviving 1909-1914 average prices for wheat, dairy products, cotton, tobacco, corn, rice, sugar, hogs, and peanuts. Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace, now 44, orders limitation procedures to compensate for the fact that the AAA was established after most crops were planted and pigs were farrowed. He has some 400,000 farrowed pigs destroyed and 330,000 acres of cotton plowed under. His action raises prices but outrages many farmers, who consider it virtually a sacrilege, and the resulting redundancy of labor on Southern plantations initiates a movement of black and poor white sharecroppers and tenant farmers to northern cities (see cotton picker, 1949).



Congress creates the Commodity Credit Corp. in the U.S. Department of Agriculture to buy surpluses, supervise loans, and handle any subsidies payable to farmers for reducing their crop acreage (see 1930; 1935).



Midwestern farmers strike in October to force up prices by withholding products from market. They complain that the AAA has no real power (see 1932).



The world wheat price falls to an historic low of £4 per cwt, where it will remain through 1934. An International Wheat Agreement approved at London in August establishes country-by-country export quotas for the 1933 and 1934 harvests and provides for a 15 percent worldwide reduction in wheat acreages for next year; representatives of Argentina, Australia, Canada, and the United States sign the agreement, but Argentina exceeds her quota by 1 million tons, enforcing the acreage limitations will prove impossible, and the IWA will soon collapse.



The Roca-Runciman Agreement signed by Britain and Argentina guarantees the latter a fixed share in the British market for meat and bars any tariff on imports of Argentine cereal grain imports. Argentina agrees in return to some stipulations with regard to trade, currency exchange, and British business interests in Argentina.



At least a million destitute U.S. farm families receive direct government relief. While farm prices begin to inch up, a farmer must pay the equivalent of nine bushels of wheat for a pair of work shoes, up from two bushels in 1909.



Roughly 25 percent of U.S. workers are engaged in agriculture, down from nearly 50 percent in 1853 (see 1950).



Golden Cross Bantam corn permits U.S. farmers to increase their yields, which still average only 22.8 bushels per acre of land (see East, Shull, 1921; Pioneer Hi-Bred, 1926). The first commercial hybrid grain to be planted on a large scale, Golden Cross Bantam meets with resistance from farmers accustomed to open-pollinated corn. Farmers balk at buying hybrid seed, especially for plants which require far more work (every other row must be detasseled, and that can mean 5,000 to 8,000 tassels per acre). Those who do plant hybrid seeds increase their yields dramatically.



Anaheim, Calif., grower Walter Knott, 43, rediscovers the boysenberry developed in 1920 and makes it the basis of Knott's Berry Farms. He harvests five tons of the long, reddish-black berries per acre but will later turn the place into a 190-acre amusement park.



Farm families on the southern plains are reduced for the most part to subsisting on cornbread and beans as they go through a third consecutive drought year.



Switzerland prepares for a possible war: a federal decree reduces the size of cattle herds to make the nation independent of foreign grain imports. Further decrees will forbid the sale of hard cheese, including Emmenthaler (the oldest, most important Swiss cheese, generally exported in giant wheels weighing from 150 to 220 pounds each) until it is at least 1 year old and, later, 2 years, in order to build a large emergency stock of cheese as a source of protein.



nutrition



U.S. biochemist Robert R. Williams, 47, isolates an antiberiberi vitamin substance from rice husks. Born in India, Williams began his professional career at Manila, where beriberi is a major health problem, but it takes a ton of rice husks to produce less than 0.2 ounce of the vitamin substance (see Suzuki, 1912; vitamin B1—thiamine, 1936).



Austrian chemist Richard Kuhn, 33, at Berlin's Kaiser Wilhelm Institute isolates a heat-stable B vitamin (see 1932; vitamin B2—riboflavin, 1935).



Polish-born Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichenstein, 36, and his colleagues at the University of Basel synthesize vitamin C (ascorbic acid) (see King, 1932). Synthesis will lead to mass production of the vitamin (see Haworth 1934).



Borden Co. introduces the first vitamin-D fortified milk (see 1930). Children are the chief victims of vitamin D deficiency and the chief consumers of milk.



British Colonial Medical Service physician Cicely D. Williams, 40, describes a deficiency disease with symptoms that include edema, bloated stomach, cracked skin, red or dirty gray hair, and even dwarfism. The disease is common among infants at Accra in the Gold Goast, and Williams will use its African name, kwashiorkor, in a 1935 report for the British medical journal Lancet, calling it the disease "the deposed baby gets when the next one is born," indicating that it may be caused by a lack of mother's milk. It will later prove to be a worldwide protein-deficiency disease that goes under different names in different countries.



Illinois-born physician H. Trendley Dean, 40, of the U.S. Public Health Service undertakes epidemiological studies that will relate a lack of fluoride intake to tooth decay (see McKay, 1916). Aluminum Co. of America (Alcoa) hired Illinois-born chemist Gerald J. (Judy) Cox, now 38, in 1930 to investigate the possibility that ingesting aluminum in drinking water might contribute to mottled teeth by interfering with the metabolism of lime and phosphorus in foods to form insoluble phosphates. He reported 2 years ago that this association was likely, but it will soon be proved erroneous (see Cox, 1939).



consumer protection



Columbia University economics professor Rexford Guy Tugwell wins appointment as assistant secretary of agriculture and head of the Food and Drug Administration. Now 42 and a self-proclaimed socialist, Tugwell vows to give "human rights" priority over "property and financial rights"; he begins campaigning for a new pure food and drug law (see 1938).



"Reg. Penna. Dept. Agr." appears on packages of crackers, pasta, snack foods, and similar foods following adoption of a Pennsylvania state law ordering that bakeries and other premises producing such foods be licensed and inspected periodically for minimum cleanliness and worker health. Any company producing such foods must have its production facilities inspected, wherever they may be, if the foods are to be sold in Pennsylvania.



food and drink



Ritz crackers are introduced by National Biscuit Co. and will be the world's largest-selling crackers within 3 years. Crisper and less fluffy than soda crackers. They are butter crackers made with more shortening, no yeast, spread with a thin coating of coconut oil and sprinkled with salt after baking. Nabisco bakes 5 million of the new crackers; by 1936 production will be at the rate of 29 million per day.



Chocolate-chip Toll House cookies are created at Whitman, Mass., by innkeeper Ruth Wakefield (née Graves), who figures that semi-sweet chocolate-bar pieces dropped into cookie batter will melt in the oven and thus save her the time and trouble of melting them separately beforehand. The chocolate stays firm and the cookies turn out to be delicious. Wakefield and her husband, Kenneth, bought the inn, built in 1709, 3 years ago, and opened a restaurant. Nestlé Corp. will start distributing chocolate "morsels" for inclusion in homemade Toll House cookies beginning in 1939 and will acquire rights to the Toll House name.



Ford Motor Company's Industrialized American Barn at the Chicago fair demonstrates margarine made from soybeans. Ford chemical engineer Robert Boyer, 34, has developed soy plastics for horn buttons, gearshift handles, and control knobs and is working on ways to substitute soybean forms for conventional foods (see 1937).



Kraft Miracle Whip Salad Dressing is introduced by National Dairy Products. A spoonable product with a unique taste, it combines the best features of two existing products, boiled salad dressing, which is usually homemade, and mayonnaise, creating a new product category. Fancy cooks have for years gone to great labor to make boiled dressing for use on coleslaw, fruit salads, and the like; Miracle Whip will come to be used on sandwiches, tomatoes, and the like and will grow to outsell mayonnaise in the United States.



Typical U.S. food prices: butter 28¢/lb., margarine 13¢/lb., eggs 29¢/doz., oranges 27¢ /doz., milk 10¢/qt., bread 5¢ per 20-oz. loaf, sirloin steak 29¢/lb., round steak 26¢, rib roast 22¢, ham 31¢, bacon 22¢, leg of lamb 22¢, chicken 22¢, pork chops 20¢, cheese 24¢, coffee 26¢, rice 6¢, potatoes 2¢, sugar 6¢.



The wholesale price of sugar falls to 3¢/lb. on the New York market; Puerto

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over 5 years ago

This argument was not only used to defend slavery but to defend the nullification of fugitive slave laws in states that did not wish to comply. It is always pro-sovereignty for states but has a pro-human freedom aspect as well.